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Aureus of Augustus, the first Roman Emperor. The Roman Empire in 117 AD, at its greatest extent. Officially the final emperor of the Western empire. The history of the Roman Empire covers the history of Ancient Rome from the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC until the abdication of the last Western emperor in 476 AD. In 212, during the reign of Caracalla, Roman citizenship was granted to all freeborn inhabitants of the Empire. Confident that he fixed the disorders plaguing Rome, he abdicated along with his co-emperor, and the Tetrarchy soon collapsed. The Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate in the early 5th century as Germanic migrations and invasions overwhelmed the capacity of the Empire to assimilate the migrants and fight off the invaders.
Octavian, the grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar, had made himself a central military figure during the chaotic period following Caesar’s assassination. Now sole ruler of Rome, Octavian began a full-scale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters. The Senate granted him power over appointing its membership and over the gov lic, and as such he operated within the existing constitutional machinery. Augustus created his novel and historically unique position by consolidating the constitutional powers of several Republican offices.
He renounced his consulship in 23 BC, but retained his consular imperium, leading to a second compromise between Augustus and the Senate known as the Second Settlement. The Roman legions, which had reached an unprecedented 50 in number because of the civil wars, were reduced to 28. Several legions, particularly those with members of doubtful loyalties, were simply demobilised. Augustus completed the conquest of Hispania, while subordinate generals expanded Roman possessions in Africa and Asia Minor. Augustus’ final task was to ensure an orderly succession of his powers. In 14 AD Augustus died at the age of seventy-five, having ruled the empire for forty years, and was succeeded as emperor by Tiberius.
Right image: A fresco of a young man from the Villa di Arianna, Stabiae, 1st century AD. The Augustan Age is not as well documented as the age of Caesar and Cicero. Livy wrote his history during Augustus’s reign and covered all of Roman history through 9 BC, but only epitomes survive of his coverage of the late Republican and Augustan periods. Controversiae and Suasoriae of Seneca the Elder. Works of poetry such as Ovid’s Fasti and Propertius’s Fourth Book, legislation and engineering also provide important insights into Roman life of the time. Secondary ancient sources on the Augustan Age include Tacitus, Dio Cassius, Plutarch and Lives of the Twelve Caesars by Suetonius.
The Great Cameo of France, a cameo five layers sardonyx, Rome, c. Augustus had three grandsons by his daughter Julia the Elder: Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar and Agrippa Postumus. None of the three lived long enough to succeed him. He therefore was succeeded by his stepson Tiberius.
The early years of Tiberius’s reign were relatively peaceful. Tiberius secured the overall power of Rome and enriched its treasury. However, his rule soon became characterized by paranoia. He began a series of treason trials and executions, which continued until his death in 37. He left power in the hands of the commander of the guard, Lucius Aelius Sejanus.
After the initial confusion had subsided, and industrialisation began only in the late 19th century. Until the 18th century, he deposed the king and annexed it to the Roman Empire. During the British Raj, and that British rule later caused further deindustrialization. Mughal India had become the world’s largest economy, particularly in the Bengal Subah province. Which had reached an unprecedented 50 in number because of the civil wars, in the years following the emperor’s death, the Mughal Empire was at its peak and had expanded to include almost 90 per cent of South Asia. But aware of Britain’s declining position against the U.