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You can find a Welcome email and the latest newsletter from us . Google Chrome and Mozila Firefox browsers. This article needs additional citations for verification. The characteristics of the user interface often force the decision on a designer. This might be characterised by a short start-up time, but a tediously slow editing process. Probably the thinnest clients, sometimes called “ultra thin,” are remote desktop applications, e. Thick clients have advantages in multimedia-rich applications that would be bandwidth intensive if fully served.
For example, thick clients are well suited for video gaming. On some operating systems software products are designed for personal computers that have their own local resources. Running this software in a thin client environment can be difficult. As many people now have very fast local PCs, they already have the infrastructure to run thick clients at no extra cost.
This page was last edited on 16 April 2018, at 06:20. If the hardware provides multiple rings or CPU modes, the microkernel may be the only software executing at the most privileged level, which is generally referred to as supervisor or kernel mode. In terms of the source code size, as a general rule microkernels tend to be smaller than monolithic kernels. The MINIX 3 microkernel, for example, has approximately 12,000 lines of code. Microkernels trace their roots back to Danish computer pioneer Per Brinch Hansen and his tenure in Danish computer company Regnecentralen where he led software development efforts for the RC 4000 computer.
Following Brinch Hansen’s work, microkernels have been developed since the 1970s The term microkernel itself appeared no later than 1981. Microkernels were a very hot topic in the 1980s when the first usable local area networks were being introduced. The same mechanisms that allowed the kernel to be distributed into user space also allowed the system to be distributed across network links. Although major work on microkernels had largely ended, experimenters continued development.
It has since been shown that many of the performance problems of earlier designs were not a fundamental limitation of the concept, but instead due to the designer’s desire to use single-purpose systems to implement as many of these services as possible. Microkernels are closely related to exokernels. Early operating system kernels were rather small, partly because computer memory was limited. As the capability of computers grew, the number of devices the kernel had to control also grew. Throughout the early history of Unix, kernels were generally small, even though they contained various device drivers and file system implementations. Unix began the era of larger kernels.