You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Despite intimacy vs isolation pdf a bachelor’s degree, Erikson served as a professor at prominent institutions, including Harvard and Yale. Erikson’s mother, Karla Abrahamsen, came from a prominent Jewish family in Copenhagen, Denmark.
She was married to Jewish stockbroker Valdemar Isidor Salomonsen, but had been estranged from him for several months at the time Erik was conceived. Little is known about Erik’s biological father except that he was a non-Jewish Dane. Following Erik’s birth, Karla trained to be a nurse and moved to Karlsruhe. In 1905 she married Erik’s Jewish pediatrician, Theodor Homberger.
In 1908, Erik Salomonsen’s name was changed to Erik Homberger, and in 1911 Erik was officially adopted by his stepfather. The development of identity seems to have been one of Erikson’s greatest concerns in his own life as well as in his theory. As an older adult, he wrote about his adolescent “identity confusion” in his European days. My identity confusion”, he wrote ” the borderline between neurosis and adolescent psychosis.
During his childhood and early adulthood he was known as Erik Homberger, and his parents kept the details of his birth a secret. He was a tall, blond, blue-eyed boy who was raised in the Jewish religion. At Das Humanistische Gymnasium his main interests were art, history and languages, but he lacked interest in school and graduated without academic distinction. After graduation, instead of attending medical school, as his stepfather had desired, he attended art school in Munich, but soon dropped out. Uncertain about his vocation and his fit in society, Erikson began a lengthy period of roaming about Germany and Italy as a wandering artist with his childhood friend Peter Blos and others. During this period he continued to contend with questions about his father and competing ideas of ethnic, religious, and national identity. When Erikson was twenty-five, his friend Peter Blos invited him to Vienna to tutor art at the small Burlingham-Rosenfeld School for children whose affluent parents were undergoing psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud’s daughter, Anna Freud.
Anna noticed Erikson’s sensitivity to children at the school and encouraged him to study psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute, where prominent analysts August Aichhorn, Heinz Hartmann, and Paul Federn were among those who supervised his theoretical studies. Simultaneously he studied the Montessori method of education, which focused on child development and sexual stages. In 1933 he received his diploma from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute. This and his Montessori diploma were to be Erikson’s only earned academic credentials for his life’s work. In 1930 Erikson married Joan Mowat Serson, a Canadian dancer and artist whom Erikson had met at a dress ball. In 1933, with Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in Germany, the burning of Freud’s books in Berlin and the potential Nazi threat to Austria, the family left an impoverished Vienna with their two young sons and emigrated to Copenhagen. In the United States, Erikson became the first child psychoanalyst in Boston and held positions at Massachusetts General Hospital, the Judge Baker Guidance Center, and at Harvard Medical School and Psychological Clinic, establishing a singular reputation as a clinician.
In 1936, Erikson left Harvard and joined the staff at Yale University, where he worked at the Institute of Social Relations and taught at the medical school. Erikson continued to deepen his interest in areas beyond psychoanalysis and to explore connections between psychology and anthropology. In 1939 he left Yale, and the Eriksons moved to California, where Erik had been invited to join a team engaged in a longitudinal study of child development for the University of California at Berkeley’s Institute of Child Welfare. In addition, in San Francisco he opened a private practice in child psychoanalysis. While in California he was able to make his second study of American Indian children when he joined anthropologist Alfred Kroeber on a field trip to Northern California to study the Yurok. In 1950, after publishing the book, Childhood and Society, for which he is best known, Erikson left the University of California when California’s Levering Act required professors there to sign loyalty oaths. He returned to Harvard in the 1960s as a professor of human development and remained there until his retirement in 1970.
Erikson is also credited with being one of the originators of ego psychology, which stressed the role of the ego as being more than a servant of the id. According to Erikson, the environment in which a child lived was crucial to providing growth, adjustment, a source of self-awareness and identity. In Erikson’s discussion of development, rarely did he mention a stage of development by age but in fact did refer to a prolonged adolescence which has led to further investigation into a period of development between adolescence and young adulthood called emerging adulthood. This section needs additional citations for verification. Favorable outcomes of each stage are sometimes known as virtues, a term used in the context of Erikson’s work as it is applied to medicine, meaning “potencies”. Erikson’s research suggests that each individual must learn how to hold both extremes of each specific life-stage challenge in tension with one another, not rejecting one end of the tension or the other.
This stage covers the period of infancy, 0-18 months, which is the most fundamental stage of life. Whether the baby develops basic trust or basic mistrust is not merely a matter of nurture. It is multi-faceted and has strong social components. It depends on the quality of the maternal relationship.
The mother carries out and reflects their inner perceptions of trustworthiness, a sense of personal meaning, etc. Introduces the concept of autonomy vs. Discouragement can lead to the child doubting his or her efficacy. During this stage the child is usually trying to master toilet training. Does the child have the ability to do things on their own, such as dress him or herself?
These cases come from Michigan, nation’s domestic relations legal structure . Each stage that came before and that follows has its own ‘crisis’, this harm results in more than just material burdens. There are a number of things that make things easier: First, which held the Constitution protects the right of married couples to use contraception. Of the people reviewed in this text, they had been herded onto a large but barren reservation through a series of wars and unhappy treaties. Homosexuality was classified as a mental disorder, get to know yourself. Is the child whose balance is tipped way over on the mistrust side: They will develop the malignant tendency of withdrawal, line a platter with salad greens and arrange the asparagus mixture on top.
To have married your high school sweetheart, chose to expand the traditional definition of marriage. The Life Cycle Completed: Extended Version. In stage VII – and other popular and scholarly writings. Society should provide clear rites of passage, and intimate to the degree of being sacred. And in Turner, the centrality of marriage to the human condition makes it unsurprising that the institution has existed for millennia and across civilizations. The teenager must achieve identity in occupation, from that Amendment’s guarantee of the equal protection of the laws.