This article includes anthology for sight singing karpinski pdf list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Functional pitch recognition involves identifying the function or role of a single pitch in the context of an established tonic. Once a tonic has been established, each subsequent pitch may be classified without direct reference to accompanying pitches.
For example, once the tonic G has been established, listeners may recognize that the pitch D plays the role of the dominant in the key of G. Many musicians use functional pitch recognition in order to identify, understand, and appreciate the roles and meanings of pitches within a key. Functional pitch recognition is not the same as fixed-do solfège, e. Functional pitch recognition has several strengths. Since a large body of music is tonal, the technique is widely applicable.
Functional pitch recognition has some weaknesses. Music with no tonic or ambiguous tonality does not provide the frame of reference necessary for this type of analysis. When dealing with key changes, a student must know how to account for pitch function recognition after the key changes: retain the original tonic or change the frame of reference to the new tonic. Interval recognition is also a useful skill for musicians: in order to determine the notes in a melody, a musician must have some ability to recognize intervals. Some music teachers teach their students relative pitch by having them associate each possible interval with the first two notes of a popular song. Complementary to recognizing the melody of a song is hearing the harmonic structures that support it. Musicians often practise hearing different types of chords and their inversions out of context, just to hear the characteristic sound of the chord.
They also learn chord progressions to hear how chords relate to one another in the context of a piece of music. The process is similar to twelve-tone ear training, but with many more intervals to distinguish. Aspects of microtonal ear training are covered in Harmonic Experience, by W. Mathieu, with sight-singing exercises, such as singing over a drone, to learn to recognize just intonation intervals. Gro Shetelig at The Norwegian Academy of Music is working on the development of a Microtonal Ear Training method for singers and has developed the software Micropalette, a tool for listening to microtonal tones, chords and intervals. This section does not cite any sources.
One way musicians practise rhythms is by breaking them up into smaller, more easily identifiable sub-patterns. For example, one might start by learning the sound of all the combinations of four eighth notes and eighth rests, and then proceed to string different four-note patterns together. Another way to practise rhythms is by muscle memory, or teaching rhythm to different muscles in the body. Later stages may combine keeping time with the hand, foot, or voice and simultaneously tapping out the rhythm, and beating out multiple overlapping rhythms. A metronome may be used to assist in maintaining accurate tempo. Each type of musical instrument has a characteristic sound quality that is largely independent of pitch or loudness. Some instruments have more than one timbre, e.
Another way to practise rhythms is by muscle memory, and Keyboard Skills. Aspects of microtonal ear training are covered in Harmonic Experience — essential Ear Training for the Contemporary Musician. Including recognizing rhythm, melody and harmony. And the Politics of Perception”, some instruments have more than one timbre, and appreciate the roles and meanings of pitches within a key.