Metasomatism is the chemical alteration of a rock by hydrothermal and other fluids. It is the replacement of one rock by another of different mineralogical and chemical composition. Synonyms to the word altered carbon pdf download are metasomatose and metasomatic process.
Metasomatism can occur via the action of hydrothermal fluids from an igneous or metamorphic source. In the igneous environment, metasomatism creates skarns, greisen, and may affect hornfels in the contact metamorphic aureole adjacent to an intrusive rock mass. This mechanism implies that metasomatism is open system behaviour, which is different from classical metamorphism which is the in-situ mineralogical change of a rock without appreciable change in the chemistry of the rock. Because metamorphism usually requires water in order to facilitate metamorphic reactions, metamorphism nearly always occurs with metasomatism. Further, because metasomatism is a mass transfer process, it is not restricted to the rocks which are changed by addition of chemical elements and minerals or hydrous compounds. In all cases, to produce a metasomatic rock some other rock is also metasomatised, if only by dehydration reactions with minimal chemical change.
Metasomatic rocks can be extremely varied. Often, metasomatised rocks are pervasively but weakly altered, such that the only evidence of alteration is bleaching, change in colour or change in the crystallinity of micaceous minerals. In such cases, characterising alteration often requires microscope investigation of the mineral assemblage of the rocks to characterise the minerals, any additional mineral growth, changes in protolith minerals, and so on. In some cases, geochemical evidence can be found of metasomatic alteration processes.
This is usually in the form of mobile, soluble elements such as barium, strontium, rubidium, calcium and some rare earth elements. Chlorite or mica whole-rock replacement in shear zones, resulting in rocks in which the existing mineralogy has been completely recrystallised and replaced by hydrated minerals such as chlorite, muscovite, and serpentine. Skarn and skarnoid rock types, typically adjacent to granite intrusions and adjacent to reactive lithologies such as limestone, marl and banded iron formation. Greisen deposits within granite margins and cupolas.
Effects of metasomatism in mantle peridotite can be either modal or cryptic. In cryptic metasomatism, mineral compositions are changed, or introduced elements are concentrated on grain boundaries and the peridotite mineralogy appears unchanged. In modal metasomatism, new minerals are formed. Cryptic metasomatism may be caused as rising or percolating melts interact with surrounding peridotite, and compositions of both melts and peridotite are changed. Modal metasomatism may result in formation of amphibole and phlogopite, and the presence of these minerals in peridotite xenoliths has been considered strong evidence of metasomatic processes in the mantle. Investigation of altered rocks in hydrothermal ore deposits has highlghted several ubiquitous types of alteration assemblages which create distinct groups of metasomatic alteration effects, textures and mineral assemblages.
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